Hartono Logic

CURICULUM VITAE Hartono, S.Si., M.Pd. Lahir di Bojonegoro Jatim pada hari Minggu Kliwon, 28 Agustus 1977. Anak ke-3 dari 3 bersaudara laki-laki semua. Dari ket...

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Performance Analysis of Power Bank Fitted with Recycled Laptop Batteries

Performance Analysis of Power Bank Fitted with Recycled Laptop Batteries

Abstract

The result of observation at Science Laboratory of State Vocational High School 3 of Surakarta shows that the power capacity of power bank fitted with recycled laptop batteries was not tested. Power bank test was conducted by preparing used laptop batteries type 18650 from its packaging for a total of five cells, selecting batteries based on their physical appearance, cleaning the pole connections, testing the voltage, testing temperature when power charging from electric outlet to power bank, testing the power drain, testing the power capacity without load, charging in the case, testing the module when power charging from electric outlet to power bank, testing the power capacity level indicator, testing power charging from power bank to recharged device, installing the power bank analyzer, and recording voltage measurement results, electric current flowing, duration of time needed to charge, and power capacity left after charging. The electric load used was a 1.2 watt LED lamp. After that, the calculation of battery power capacity was conducted, in accordance with the technical specification listed in the power, then compared to the result of test of power capacity stored in recycled power bank. Based on the result of technical specification calculation, the power bank produced had a power capacity of 50.000 watt hours. Meanwhile, in the experiment with LED lamp electric load, the power bank had a power capacity of 44.6756 watt hours. The comparison of power capacity between the technical specification and the experiment shows that the recycled power bank had performance of 89.4%. Thus, recycled power bank met the requirement of feasibility to be learning media of physics project.

Keyword
work method; power bank; recycling; laptop batteries

INTRODUCTION
The word conservation is defined as a process of regular maintenance and protection to prevent damage, by way of preservation. Conservation can be interpreted as an act of doing protection and/or preservation, to preserve something from damage, destruction, loss, or else (Margareta et al. 2011). Dangerous and toxic material wastes can threaten the sustainability of environment. Conservation is a way to preserve environment, while still paying attention to possibly gained benefits at the certain time by keeping the existence of each component of the environment for future use. These wastes should be managed well so that they will not threaten the present and future generation (Suhadi, 2012). To decrease the environmental impact, lithium-ion portable batteries can be recycled with its volume expected to increase by a third from 2013 to 2017 (Boyden, S. & Doolan, 2016).
Lithium-ion batteries are the most common battery type used in portable electronic devices and their use is expected to double from 2013-2014 to 2019-2020. The recycling of lithium-ion batteries reduces energy consumption, reduces greenhouse gas emissions, and results in considerable natural resource savings when compared
*Address Correspondence:
E-mail: hartonojob@gmail.com
286 Hartono, W. Sunarno, Sarwanto / JPII 6 (2) (2017) 285-291
to landfill. However, it is unclear which recycling
processes have the least impact on the environment.
This paper will investigate the different
processes that are currently used for recycling
portable lithium-ion batteries, such as hydrometallurgy,
pyrometallurgy, and combinations of
processes. Surveys are carried out to understand
the materials recovered from each process, and
are obtained from several recycling companies
around the world. A comparative life cycle assessment
will be performed for two different recycling
processes (hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy,
by decreasing the mileage between collection and
recycling.
One of the conservation efforts conducted
is laptop battery recycle to power bank product.
In this research, the most effective model was
developed for system of interaction analysis between
physical process and information stream,
short-term and long-term effects to the environment
from the portable battery waste (Blumberga
et al., 2015). The developed model is important
to be an input for policy makers on policy evaluation,
collection, and steps.
The high number of gadget users is also followed
by the increase of battery-dependent daily
activities. A research places Indonesia on the top
5 gadget user in number, with 47 million of active
users, or approximately 14% of overall number of
gadget users in the world (Gifary, 2015). Other research
shows that younger generation in Indonesia
who have a high degree of education tend to
use mobile internet, especially from smartphones
(Puspitasari & Ishii, 2016). Meanwhile, personal
computer is used for large-scale data management
in information gathering in daily life. This finding
also shows the importance of ICT education and
the prospects of mobile internet segment in order
to fill the digital gap with developing countries.
The growing number of gadget-dependent
activities directly impacts to the growing number
of consumption of battery energy. Battery is a
part of gadget with the most rapid damage rate,
yet it can still be recycled. The battery age can
be estimated and investigated to find more optimal
next generation batteries (Kalmykova et al.,
2017).
A power bank is a device used to insert
electrical energy to a rechargeable battery, without
having to connect the device to electrical
outlet. It can be used without having to connect
it to an electrical device. It has electrical capacity
so that when the energy contained in the power
bank has been depleted, the power bank must be
recharged by connecting it to an electrical outlet.
It is mostly used to recharge gadget batteries. It
is used by connecting the device connector cable
to the portable battery charger. The connector
cable connecting the device with the power bank
is called USB connector, which is connected to
the other end which is shaped like the customized
device charger. There are some weaknesses
in fast mode power bank battery charging, on the
balance of charging time with the excessive raise
of battery temperature (Zhang et al., 2017).
Portable battery device always develops
from time to time, in its type of use, capacity, and
energy density (Pistoia, 2009). The main component
which constitutes a power bank is battery.
There are also other components, namely: (1) lithium-
ion rechargeable battery type 18650 which
functions as energy storage which transforms
chemical energy stored into electricity. It is like
power bank module, which is an array of electronic
device functioning to control electrical current
flow when charging power from electric outlet
to power bank and when charging power from
power bank to recharged device (Schmalstieg et
al., 2014); (2) LED indicator which functions to
inform battery level at the time of power charging
from electric outlet to power bank and power
charging from power bank to recharged device;
(3) Casing which functions as a storage place of
power bank devices; (4) Port which functions as
an in/out outlet at the time of entry and power
charging from power bank to recharged device;
and (5) connector, which is a cable connecting
the charger to power bank or power bank to the
recharged device. After assembly process, a set of
recycled battery, module, battery charger level indicator,
port, and connector cable will be used as
a set of integrated instruments for project-based
learning of Physics.
The level of motivation of students in
Science learning is much better through battery
project-based advance organizer learning model
(Tasiwan et al., 2014). Project-based learning
gives a limited illustration for big things which
can form soft skills of conservation (Pavaloiu et
al., 2015). There are five soft skills of conservation,
namely love for environment, environmental
consciousness, responsibility, objectivity, and
honesty (Rosita & Marwoto, 2014). It is hoped
that through cooperative model, the learning
conducted can encourage students to learn more
and work in groups related to certain courses. It
is also expected that they will try to achieve the
project goal synergically and will be much more
ready for future work and technical competence.
Lastly, it is expected that the students are able to
use technology by correct and efficient means
in product design, to understand new technoloHartono,
W. Sunarno, Sarwanto / JPII 6 (2) (2017) 285-291 287
gies, or to solve problems related to mechanism
during product development and to build general
discourse through various disciplines to comprehend
the new technologies, to solve mechanism
problems during product development and to establish
a common discourse with other engineers
during multidisciplinary work (Zadeh & Satır,
2015). This study focuses on the content of physics
and related classes that belong to the curriculum
of Industrial Product Design Department
(IPDD. The main material taught was direct current
(DC), with an emphasis to recycled laptop
battery products. Power capacity is the amount of
energy stored in a battery, indicacted by miliAmpere
hours (mAh) (Ecker et al., 2014)
Based on the background of problems
above, this research is focused on how to test the
performance of power bank fitted with recycled
laptop batteries if reviewed from power capacity
as shown in specifications and power capacity
proven through experimentation.
METHODS
This research used descriptive research
type, by describing the performance of produced
integrated instrument tools from recycled laptop
batteries, which would be used for project-based
learning in school laboratories (Lei et al., 2015;
Hidayat, 2015). The battery used was a recycled
used laptop battery type 18650, which had 5 battery
cells variation (Love et al., 2014).
The research was conducted in several stages:
disassembling the casing of the used laptop
battery, analyzing the physical feasibility, cleaning
the welding point of positive and negative
poles of the battery to remove any toxic materials
(Fu et al., 2015), measuring the voltage, charging
and draining the battery content (Keil & Jossen,
2016), analyzing temperature when power charging
from electric outlet to power bank (Waldmann
& Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, 2017) ”ISSN”:
“00134686”, “abstract”: “During charging at low
temperatures, metallic Lithium can be deposited
on the surface of graphite anodes of Li-ion cells.
This Li plating does not only lead to fast capacity
fade, it can also impair the safety behavior. The
present study observes the effect of rest periods
between Li plating and subsequent accelerated
rate calorimetry (ARC, installing the battery in
integrated instrument tools, analyzing power capacity
level indicator lamp (Kornbluth & Erickson,
2012) health, and environmental costs of
kerosene, candles, and other fuel-based lighting
are well-documented. As a result of efforts by the
World Bank and other organizations, numerous
lighting products incorporating solar photovoltaic
and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), trying the
circuit by adding electric load, analyzing voltage
when power charging from power bank to recharged
device, analyzing transferred power capacity,
and analyzing the time needed to charge device
using power bank. The nature of conservation in
learning is aimed to accustom students to behave
in an environmentally friendly behavior, since the
natures of conservation are to care, protect, and
repair the environment (Machin, 2013).
Instrument testing was conducted to 6 integrated
instrument tools of power bank fitted
with recycled used laptop batteries, each consisted
of 5 cells of type 18650 battery. The experiment
was conducted alternately, in February – March
2017. The data were collected through observation
during power bank experiment by project
instrument. Instrument data collection was conducted
to represent overall integrated instrument
tools of power bank. They were then analyzed by
descriptive method, both quantitative and qualitative
consisting of data reduction and process of
determining conclusion.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The research was conducted through stages
as follows: (1) disassembling the casing of the
used laptop battery; (2) analyzing the physical
feasibility; (3) cleaning the welding point of positive
and negative poles of the battery to remove
any toxic materials; (4) measuring the voltage;
(5) charging and draining the battery content;
(6) analyzing temperature when charging power
from electric outlet to power bank; (7) installing
the battery in integrated instrument tools; (8)
analyzing power capacity level indicator lamp;
(9) trying the circuit by adding electric load; (10)
analyzing voltage when power charged from
power bank to recharged device; (11) analyzing
transferred power capacity; and (12) analyzing
the time needed to charge device using power
bank.
The disassembling process of laptop
rechargeable battery type 18650 resulted in product
as shown in Figure 1. Based on the technical
data, type 18650 batteries have some specifications,
namely: 18 mm diameter, 65 mm height,
4.2 volt voltage, 2000 mAh power capacity.
288 Hartono, W. Sunarno, Sarwanto / JPII 6 (2) (2017) 285-291
Figure 1. Type 18650 Batteries Fitted with Recycled
Laptop Batteries The electrical load used to test the produced
power bank was a portable LED lamp consuming
1.2 watt on 5 volt voltage, connected
through USB port, as shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4. 5 volt, 1.2 watt USB Portable LED
Lamp
The experiment was conducted by following
scheme as shown in Figure 5. First, 5 type
18650 batteries were installed in parallel circuit,
and then they were connected to the power bank
module. After that, analyzer was installed, and
finally, an electrical load of portable LED lamp
was connected.
Based on technical data, type 18650 batteries
had 4.2 volt output voltage and 2000 mAh
power capacity. If 5 parallely-arranged battery
cells were used in an integrated instrument tools,
the ideal battery capacity accumulation produced
in accordance with technical specification was 5
x 2000 mAh = 10000 mAh.
The calculation of power bank capacity
according to specifications prescribed was 10000
mAh, meaning that the battery could provide
electrical current of 2.1 A for 10000/2100 = 4.762
hours, as shown in Figure 6. Based on the energy
equation of E = P x t = V x I x t. It could be calculated
that 5 volt x 2.1 ampere x 4762 hours =
50.0 watt hours. Therefore, the energy storage capacity
of power bank tested was 50.0 watt hours.
There were some physical indicators used
to indicate that the batteries still worked normally,
namely: 1) not excreting fluids or gases; 2) not
having any bulge; and 3) not corroding. The performanceof
rechargeable batteries is the most important
thing in power bank circuit.
The desired power bank module is shown
in Figure 2. A power bank module consisted of
some components: 1) 5 compartment batteries
channel; 2) Micro USB charging socket with specification
of 5V ± 5% ≡ 1A; 3) electrical outletto-
power bank charging protection circuit; 4) 4
LED power capacity level indicators; 5) power
bank-to-recharged device charging protection
unit; 6) female USB port with specification of 5V
± 5% ≡ 2,1A; 7) power indicator lamp; 7) on/off
switch.
Figure 2. Power Bank Module
The power bank casing used in this research
is shown in Figure 3. It had some features as
follows: 1) It was made of PP Plastic Compound;
2) it had USB and micro USB slots; 3) it enabled
the users to change the battery by themselves. The
arrangement for batteries is in parallel circuit.
Figure 5. Scheme of Performance Analysis of Power Bank Fitted with Recycled Laptop Batteries
Figure 3. Power Bank Casing
Hartono, W. Sunarno, Sarwanto / JPII 6 (2) (2017) 285-291 289
Figure 6. Power Bank Battery Analyzer (Voltage,
Electrical Current, Working Time, Battery Power
Capacity)
Visually, the result of power bank capacity
test with electrical load is shown in Figure 7.
The power bank capacity was drastically reduced
when connected to electrical load, at the time
when the voltage reached 3.7 volt. After that, the
voltage was stable, at the range of 3.0 volt without
experiencing any reduction, even though the
load was still connected. However, in this situation,
the current rate to the electrical load stopped,
in a condition as same as when the switch opens.
In a normal battery, the minimal lowest voltage is
3.0 volt. If the battery voltage is under 3 volt, it
indicates that the battery may be broken.
From the calculation according to data
obtained from measurement, it was found that
the electrical current was 0.21 ampere, the voltage
was 5.22 volt, and the time estimation was
40.755 hours. Thus, the energy capacity = P x t =
V x I x t = 5.22 volt x 0.21 ampere x 40.755 hours
= 44.6756 watt hours. Based on the calculations,
the comparison between the energy capacity
based on specification and the energy capacity
based on measurement was 89%.
Figure 7. Measurement and Analysis of Battery Power Capacity when Connected to Electrical Load
Since the load requirements of power bank
in this experiment was a 5 volt LED lamp, then
the power bank should convert the battery voltage
from 4.2 volt to 5 volt, so that the mAh value
of power bank also changed in accordance with
the comparison value of battery voltage with output
voltage formed. In this case, the constants of
multiplying factor to the mAh of power bank appeared
which was resulted from calculations of
4.2 volt/5 volt = 0.84. It should be noted that
each power bank had its certain efficiency level,
meaning that not all mAh could be fully stored
100%. It was caused by the material and electronical
limit of power bank, which resulted in the
loss of charge capacity, or in other words, unstored
charge capacity, assuming that the power
bank was still capable in storing power, with 90%
efficiency level. Based on the data of constants of
multiplying factor and efficiency level of power
bank, then it can be assumed that a power bank
with 10000 mAh specification had the actual
mAh value of 0.84 x 10000 x 90% = 7560 mAh.
Table 1 shows that the indicator of capacity
level of battery based on measurement result
indicated the accuracy of LED view. In addition
to showing the change in total LED lit, the indicator
also marked power charging from electric
outlet to power bank and power charging from
power bank to recharged device by blinking with
the same frequency of blinking in each lamp.
290 Hartono, W. Sunarno, Sarwanto / JPII 6 (2) (2017) 285-291
Table 1. Indicator of Capacity Level of Power
Bank Battery
LED Color
Battery
Level
(%)
Voltage
Range
(Volt)
Info
Dull Red 0 - 25 3.00 – 3.59 Low
Bright Red 25 - 50 3.60 – 3.89 Middle
Yellow 50 - 75 3.90 – 4.04 High
Green 75 - 100 4.05 – 4.20 Full
Overall, the performance of each part of power
bank was in accordance with the plan. This shows
that integrated instrument tools of power bank by
using recycled laptop battery product could be used as
learning media for project-based physics course. At the
time of charging power from electrical outlet to power
bank, the battery did not reach 60o C in normal charging
time. At the time of charging power from power
bank to recharged device, the battery delivered the
current steadily. The parallel circuit of 5 type 18650
battery cells with different capacities could have the
performance f 89.4% after experiment, compared to
technical specification work method.
CONCLUSION
It was discovered from this research that
the performanceof power bank using recycled
laptop battery which would be used as a project
learning media at Vocational High School was
89.4%, compared to the technical specification,
based on the data obtained. The integrated instrument
tools of power bank using recycled laptop
battery is feasible to be used as a learning media
for project-based course, especially at Vocational
High School with ICT area of expertise. In the
future, it is hoped that the development of integrated
instrument tools can be directed to using
alternative energy resources, such as adding solar
panel modules.
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